Glossary of Botanical Names

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A

  • abbreviatus: abbreviated, shortened.
  • abortivus: aborted, parts failing.
  • abruptus: abrupt, suddenly changing in shape or character.
  • abyssinicus: Abyssinian.
  • acaulis: stemless.
  • acephalus: headless.
  • acerbus: acerb, harsh or sour (taste).
  • aceroldes: acer-like, maple-like.
  • acerosus: needle-shaped.
  • acicularis: needle-like.
  • acidissimus: exceedingly sour.
  • acidus: acid, sour.
  • acinaceus: scimetar-or saber-shaped.
  • acris: acrid, sharp.
  • aculeatus: prickly.
  • acuminatus: acuminate, long-pointed, tapering.
  • acutangulus: acutely or sharply angled.
  • acutifidus: acutely or sharply cut.
  • acutifolius: acutely leaved, sharp-leaved.
  • acutilobus: acutely lobed.
  • acutipetalus: petals acute or sharp (pointed).
  • acutus: acute, sharp-pointed.
  • admirabills: admirable, noteworthy.
  • adnatus: adnate, joined to.
  • adpressus: pressed against.
  • adscendens: ascending.
  • adsurgens: rising to an erect position, ascending.
  • aduncus: hooked.
  • advenus: newly arrived, adventive.
  • aegyptiacus: Egyptian.
  • aemulus: emulative, imitating.
  • aeneus: brazen, bronze-coloured.
  • aequinoctialis: pertaining to the equinox.
  • aequipetalus: equal-petaled.
  • aeruginosus: rusty, rust-coloured.
  • aestivalis: summer.
  • aestivus: summer.
  • aethiopicus: Ethiopian, African.
  • affinis: related (to another species).
  • africanus: African.
  • agavoides: Agave-like.
  • ageratoides: ageratum-like.
  • aggregatus: aggregate, clustered.
  • agrarius: of the fields.
  • agrestis: of or pertaining to the fields.
  • aizoides: aizoon-like (Aizoon, an evergreen or tenacious plant).
  • alatus: winged.
  • albescens: whitish, becoming white.
  • albicans: whitish.
  • albicaulis: white-stemmed.
  • albidus: white.
  • albiflorus: white-flowered.
  • albifrons: white-fronded, white-herbaged.
  • albispinus: white-spined.
  • albocinctus: white-girdled, white-crowned.
  • albospicus: white-spiked.
  • albus: white.
  • alcicornis: elk-horned.
  • aleppicus: of Aleppo (in Syria).
  • alliaceus: of the alliums, garlic-like.
  • aloides: aloe-like.
  • alpestris: alpine.
  • alpinus: alpine.
  • altaicus: of the Altai Mts. (S. Siberia).
  • alternans: alternating.
  • alternus: alternating, alternate.
  • altifrons: tall-fronded or -herbaged.
  • altissimus: very tall, tallest.
  • altus: tall.
  • amabills: lovely.
  • amarus: bitter.
  • ambiguus: ambiguous, doubtful.
  • amelloides: amellus-like.
  • americanus: American.
  • amethystinus: amethystine, violet-coloured.
  • amoenus: charming, pleasing.
  • amphibius: amphibious, growing both in water and on land.
  • amplexicaulis: stem-clasping.
  • amplissimus: most or very ample.
  • amplus: ample, large, extended.
  • amurensis: of the Amur River region (E. Siberia).
  • amygdalinus: pertaining to or like amygdalus.
  • anacanthus: without spines.
  • anatolicus: of Anatolia (Asia Minor).
  • anceps: two-headed, two-edged.
  • andicolus: native of the Andes.
  • andinus: Andiuc, Andian, pertaining to the Andes
  • androgynus: with both staminate and pistillate flowers in one cluster.
  • anfractuosus: twisted.
  • anglicus: English, pertaining to England.
  • anguinus: snaky, pertaining to serpents.
  • angularis: angular, angled.
  • angulatus: angular, angled.
  • angulosus: angular, angled.
  • angustus: narrow.
  • annotinus: year-old.
  • annularis: annular, ringed.
  • annulatus: annular.
  • annuus: annual, living but one year.
  • anomalus: anomalous, out of the ordinary or usual.
  • antillaris: of the Antilles (W. Indies).
  • antipodum: of the antipodes.
  • antiquorum: of the ancients.
  • antiquus: ancient.
  • apenninus: pertaining to the Apennines (Italy).
  • apertus: uncovered, bare.
  • apetalus: without petals.
  • aphyllus: leafless.
  • apiculatus: apiculate, tipped with a point.
  • appendiculatus: appendaged, bearing an extension or additional part or process.
  • applanatus: flattened.
  • applicatus: joined, attached.
  • apterus: wingless.
  • aquaticus, aquat ilis: aquatic.
  • aqueus: aqueous, watery.
  • aquilinus: aquiline, pertaining to the eagle.
  • arabicus: Arabian.
  • arachnoides: spider-like, cobwebby.
  • arborescens: becoming tree-like, woody.
  • arboreus: tree-like.
  • arcticus: arctic.
  • arcuatus: bow-like, bowed.
  • arenarius: of sand or sandy places.
  • areolatus: areolate, pitted.
  • argentatus: silvery, silvered.
  • argenteus: silvery.
  • argophyllus: silver-leaved.
  • argutus: sharp-toothed.
  • argyraeus: silvery.
  • aridus: arid.
  • arietinus: like a ram's head.
  • aristatus: aristate, bearded.
  • aristosus: bearded.
  • armatus: armed (as with thorns).
  • aromaticus: aromatic.
  • arrectus: raised up, erect.
  • articulatus: articulated, jointed.
  • arundinaceus: reed-like.
  • arvensis: pertaining to cultivated fields.
  • ascendens: ascending.
  • asiaticus: Asian.
  • asper: rough.
  • asperatus: rough.
  • aspericaulis: rough-stemmed.
  • asperrimus: very rough.
  • assimilis: similar, like to.
  • assurgens: assurgent, clambering.
  • ater: coal-black.
  • atlunticus: Atlantic, growing in Atlantic regions.
  • atratus: blackened.
  • atropurpureus: dark purple.
  • atrorubens: dark red.
  • atrosanguineus: dark blood-red.
  • atrovirens: dark green.
  • attenuatus: attenuated, produced to a point.
  • atticus: pertaining to Attica or Athens, Greek.
  • augustissimus: very notable.
  • augustus: august, notable, majestic.
  • aurantiacus: orange-red.
  • aureolus: golden.
  • aureus: golden.
  • auriculatus: auricled, eared.
  • australiensis: belonging to Australia.
  • australis: southern.
  • austriacus: Austrian.
  • autumnalis: autumnal.
  • axillaris: axillary, borne in the axils, pertaining to the axils.
  • azureus: azure, sky-blue.

B

  • baccatus: berried.
  • baccifera: berry-bearing.
  • balearicus: Balearian, of the Balearic Islands.
  • balsameus: balsamic, balsam-1ike, with balsam odor.
  • balsamifera: balsam-bearing.
  • bambusoides: bambusa-like, bamboo-like.
  • banaticus: of Banat (S. Hungary).
  • barbadensis: of Barbadoes.
  • barbarus: foreign, from a strange country.
  • barbatus: barbed, bearded.
  • barbigera: bearing barbs or beards.
  • basilaris: pertaining to the base or bottom.
  • bellus: handsome.
  • benedictus: blessed.
  • benghalensis: of Bengal (E. India).
  • betuloides: Betula-like, birch-like.
  • bicarinatus: twice-keeled, with two keels.
  • bicolor: two-coloured.
  • bicarnis: two-horned.
  • bicornutus: two-horned.
  • bidentatus: two-toothed.
  • biennis: biennial, living only two years.
  • bifidus: twice cut, in two parts.
  • bifiorus: two-flowered.
  • bifurcatus: twice-forked.
  • bigibbus: with two swellings or projections.
  • biglumis: two-glumed.
  • bijugus: yoked two together, joined, fastened together.
  • bilobus: two-lobed.
  • binatus: twin, double, two-and-two.
  • binervis: two-nerved.
  • binocularis: binocular, two-eyed, two-spotted.
  • bipartitus: two-parted.
  • bipetalus: two-petaled.
  • bipinnatifidus: bipinnatifid, twice pinnately cut.
  • bipinnatus: bipinnate, twice pinnate.
  • bipunctatus: two-spotted.
  • bisectus: cut in two parts.
  • bispinosus: two-spined.
  • biternatus: twice ternate.
  • blandus: bland, mild.
  • bonus: good.
  • burbonicus: of Bourbonne (in N. E. France).
  • borealis: northern.
  • botryoides: cluster-like, grape-like.
  • brachiatus: brachiate, branched at right angles.
  • brachypodus: short-stalked.
  • bracteatus: bracteate, bearing bracta.
  • bracteosus: bract-bearing.
  • brevicaulis: short-stemmed.
  • brevifrons: short-fronded, short- leaved.
  • brevipes: short-footed, as with abort pedicel or petiole.
  • brevirostris: short-beaked.
  • brevis: short.
  • brevisetus: short-bristled.
  • brevispathus: short-spathed.
  • brevissimus: very short, shortest.
  • brilliantissimus: most brilliant, very brilliant.
  • brunneus: deep brown.
  • bucephalus: ox-headed.
  • bufonius: pertaining to the toad.
  • bulbifera: bulb-bearing.
  • bulbosus: bulbous.
  • bullatus: inflated,swelling, puckered, bullate.
  • byzantinus: Byzantine (of the Constantinople region).

C

  • caerulescens: becoming or turning dark blue.
  • caeruleus: cerulean, dark blue.
  • caesius: bluish gray.
  • caespitosus: cespitose, tufted, growing in low dense clumps.
  • catfer, caffra: Kafir.
  • calabricus: from Calabria(in S. Italy).
  • calathinus: basket-like.
  • calcaratus: spurred, with spurs.
  • calcareus, of or pertaining to lime.
  • callosus: thick-skinned, with callosities.
  • calvus: bald, hairless.
  • calycinus: calyx-like.
  • calyculatus: calyx-like, calyx-bearing, fruit inclosed in a calyx.
  • cambricus: Cambrian, Welsh.
  • campanulatus: campanulate, bell-shaped.
  • campestris: of the fields or plains.
  • canadensis: Canadian.
  • canaliculatus: channeled, grooved.
  • canariensis: of the Canary Isle.
  • candicans: white, hoary, particularly white-hairy or white-woolly.
  • candidissimus: very white-hairy or hoary.
  • cantabricus: from Cantabria (in Spain).
  • candidus: white, white-hairy, shining.
  • canescens: gray-pubescent.
  • canus: ash-coloured, hoary.
  • capensis: of the Cape (of Good Hope).
  • capillaris: hair-like.
  • capreolatus: winding, twining.
  • capsularis: eapsular.
  • cardinalis: cardinal.
  • carinatus: keeled.
  • carneus: flesh-coloured.
  • carnonus: fleshy.
  • carolinianus: Carolinian, pertaining to North or South Carolina, or indefinitely to the Carolinas.
  • carpathicus: of the Carpathian region (Europe).
  • cartilagineus: like cartilage.
  • caryophyllaceus: clove-like; perhaps also pertaining to the pink family.
  • cashmerianus: of Cashmere (Asia).
  • catharticus: cathartic.
  • cathayanus: of Cathay (China).
  • caucusicus: belonging to the Caucasus (mountain region between the Black and Caspian Seas).
  • caudatus: caudate, tailed.
  • caulescens: caulescent, having a stem or stems.
  • cauliflorus: stem-flowered.
  • cenisius: of Mt. Cenis (between France and Italy).
  • cephalatus: headed, bearing heads.
  • cerasiformis: cherry-formed.
  • cerefolius: wax-leaved.
  • cerifera: wax-bearing.
  • cernuus: bending forward, inclined, drooping, nodding.
  • ceylanicus: of Ceylon; same as zeylanicus.
  • chalcedonicus: of Chalcedon (on the Bosphorus).
  • chilensis: belonging to Chile.
  • chinensis: belonging to China.
  • chloranthus: green-flowered.
  • chrysanthus: golden-flowered.
  • chrysocarpus: golden-fruited.
  • chrysophyllus: golden-leaved.
  • chrysostomus: golden-mouthed, golden-throated.
  • ciliaris: ciliate, fringed with hairs on the margin.
  • ciliatus: ciliate, hairy fringed.
  • cilicicus: of Cilicia (in S. E. Asia Minor).
  • cinctus: girded, girdled.
  • cinereus: ash-coloured.
  • cinnabarinus: cinnabar-red.
  • cinnamomeus: cinnamon-brown.
  • circinatus: circinate, coiled.
  • cirrhosus: tendrilled.
  • citratus: citrus-like.
  • citrinus: bright yellow (citron-like).
  • clandestinus: concealed.
  • clavatus: clavate, club-shaped.
  • clematideus: pertaining to or like Clematis.
  • clypeatus: with a shield.
  • coccifera: berry-bearing.
  • coccineus: scarlet.
  • cochlearis: spoon-like.
  • cochleatus: spoon-like.
  • coelestinus: sky-blue.
  • coelestis: celestial, sky-blue.
  • collinus: pertaining to a hill.
  • coloratus: coloured (other than green).
  • comatus: with coma or hair.
  • communis: common, general, gregarious.
  • commutatus: changed or changing.
  • comosus: with long hair.
  • compactus: compact, dense.
  • complexus: circled, embraced.
  • complicatus: complicate; page 162.
  • compressus: compressed.
  • comptus: adorned, ornamented.
  • concavus: concave, hollowed out.
  • concinnus: neat, well made.
  • concolor: coloured similarly.
  • condensus: condensed, crowded.
  • confertus: crowded.
  • conformis: similar, like to.
  • confusus: confused, uncertain (as to characteristics).
  • congestus: congested, brought together.
  • conglomeratus: conglomerate, crowded together.
  • conifera: cone-bearing.
  • conjugatus: connected, joined together.
  • conoideus: conoid, cone-like.
  • consolidus: consolidated, solid, stable.
  • conspicuus: conspicuous, marked.
  • constrictus: constricted.
  • contiguus: contiguous, near together.
  • contortus: contorted, twisted.
  • contractus: contracted.
  • coralliflorus: coral-flowered.
  • corallinus: coral-red.
  • cordatus: cordate, heart-shaped.
  • cordifolius: cordate-leaved, heart-leaved.
  • coriaceus: leathery.
  • corniculatus: horned.
  • cornigera: horn-bearing.
  • cornutus: horned.
  • coronarius: used for or belonging to garlands.
  • coronatus: crowned.
  • corrugatus: corrugated, wrinkled.
  • corsicus: Corsican (island in the Mediterranean).
  • corticosus: heavily furnished with bark.
  • coruscans: vibrating, glittering.
  • corymbifera: corymb-bearing.
  • corymbosus: corymbose.
  • costatus: costate, ribbed.
  • crassicaulis: thick-stemmed.
  • crassifolius: thick-leaved.
  • crassipes: thick-footed or -stalked.
  • crassus: thick, fleshy.
  • crenatus: crenate, scalloped.
  • crenulatus: crenulate, somewhat scalloped.
  • crepidatus: sandaled, slippered.
  • crepitans: rattling, rustling.
  • cretaceus: cretaceous, pertaining to chalk.
  • creticus: of Crete (island in Eastern Mediterranean).
  • crinitus: hairy, provided with hair.
  • crispus: crisped, curled.
  • cristatus: cristate, crested.
  • crocatus: saffron-yellow.
  • croceus: saffron yellow.
  • cruciatus: cruciate, cross-like.
  • crucifera: cross-bearing.
  • cruentus: bloody.
  • crystallinus: crystalline.
  • cubensis: Cuban.
  • cucullatus: hooded.
  • cultratus: cultrate, knife-shaped.
  • cuneatus: cuneate, wedge-shaped.
  • cuneifolius: wedge-leaved.
  • cuneiformis: wedge-formed.
  • cupreus: copper-like or -coloured.
  • curvatus: curved.
  • cuspidatus: cuspidate, with a cusp or sharp stiff point.
  • cyaneus: blue.
  • cylindraceus: cylindrical.
  • cylindricus: cylindrical.
  • cymbiformis: boat-formed.
  • cymosus: cymed, having a cyme or cymes.
  • cypreus: copper-like; see cupreus.

D

  • dactyifera: finger-bearing.
  • dahuricus, davuricus: Of Dahuria or Dauria (in trans-Baikal Siberia, near the frontier of China).
  • dalmaticus: Dalmatian (on eastern side of the Adriatic).
  • damascenus: of Damascus.
  • dasycarpus: thick-fruited.
  • dealbatus: whitened, white-washed.
  • debilis: weak, frail.
  • decandrus: ten-stamened.
  • decapetalus: ten-petaled.
  • deciduus: deciduous, with parts falling.
  • decipiens: deceptive.
  • declinatus: declined, bent downward.
  • decolorans: discoloured, staining.
  • decompositus: decompound, more than once compound or divided.
  • decorans: adorning.
  • decorus: elegant, comely, becoming.
  • decumbens: decumbent, reclining at the base but the top or tips upright.
  • decurrens: decurrent, as a leaf extending down the stem.
  • deflexus: deflexed, bent abruptly downward.
  • deformis: misshapen, deformed.
  • delectus: chosen.
  • delicatissimus: most or very delicate.
  • delicatus: delicate, tender.
  • deliciosus: delicious.
  • deltoideus: deltoid, triangular.
  • demissus: low, weak.
  • dendroideus: tree-like.
  • densiflorus: densely flowered.
  • densus: dense.
  • dentatus: toothed.
  • denticulatus: denticulate, slightly toothed.
  • dentosus: toothed.
  • denudatus: denuded, naked.
  • depauperatus: depauperate, starved, dwarfed.
  • dependens: hanging down.
  • depressus: depressed.
  • deustus: burned.
  • devastator: (feminine devastatrix): devastating, laying waste.
  • diacanthus: two-spined.
  • diadema: a diadem, crown.
  • diandrus: with two stamens.
  • diaphanus: diaphanous, very thin, transparent.
  • dichotomus: forked, two-branched equally.
  • dichrous: of two colours.
  • dicoccus: with two berries.
  • didymus: in a pair, as of anthers.
  • difformis: of differing forms.
  • diffusus: diffuse, spreading.
  • digititus: digitate, compound in form like the fingers.
  • dilatatus: dilated, expanded.
  • dilutus: dilated, spread out.
  • dimidiatus: halved, in two equal parts.
  • dimorphus: dimorphous, two-formed.
  • diodon: with two teeth.
  • dioicus: dioecious.
  • dipetalus: two-petaled.
  • diphyllus: two-leaved.
  • dipsaecus: of the teasel Dipsacus.
  • discoideus: discoid, rayless.
  • discolor: of two or of different colours.
  • dispar: dissimilar, unlike.
  • dissectus: dissected, deeply cut.
  • dissimilis: dissimilar, unlike.
  • dissitiflorus: remotely or loosely flowered.
  • distachyus: two-spiked.
  • distans: distant, separate, remote.
  • distichus: two-ranked, with leaves or flowers in ranks on opposite sides of stem.
  • distylus: two-styled.
  • diurnus: day-flowering.
  • divaricatus: divaricate, spreading, widely divergent.
  • divergens: diverging, wide-spreading.
  • diversiflorus: diversely flowered, variable-flowered.
  • diversifolius: variable-leaved.
  • divisus: divided, separated.
  • dodecandrus: twelve-stamened.
  • dolabriformis: hatchet- or axe-shaped.
  • dolosus: deceitful.
  • domesticus: domestic, domesticated.
  • drupaceus: drupe-like.
  • drupifera: drupe-bearing.
  • dubius: dubious, doubtful.
  • dulcis: sweet.
  • dumetorum: of bushea or hedges.
  • dumosus: bushy.
  • duplex: double.
  • duplicatus: duplicate, double.
  • durabilis: durable, lasting.
  • duracinus: hard-berried.
  • duriusculus: somewhat hard or rough.

E

  • ebenaceus: ebony-like.
  • ebracteatus: bractless.
  • eburneus: ivory-white.
  • echinatus: bristly, prickly.
  • echinocarpus: prickly-fruited,
  • echinosepalus: prickly-sepaled.
  • ecornutus: hornless.
  • edulis: edible.
  • effusus: very loose-spreading.
  • elasticus: elastic.
  • elatior: taller.
  • elatus: tall.
  • elegans: elegant.
  • elegantissimus: most elegant, very elegant.
  • elephantum: of the elephants.
  • elllpticus: elliptical.
  • elongatus: elongated, lengthened.
  • emarginatus: emarginate, with a shallow notch at the apex.
  • emeticus: emetic.
  • eminens: eminent, prominent.
  • enneaphyilus: nine-leaved.
  • ensatus: sword-shaped.
  • ensifolius: sword-leaved.
  • ensiformis: sword-formed or –shaped.
  • entomophilus: insect-loving.
  • equestris: pertaining to the horse.
  • equinus: of horses.
  • erectus: erect, upright.
  • erianthus: woolly-flowered.
  • ericoides: erica-like, heath-like.
  • eriocarpus: woolly-fruited.
  • eriocephalus: woolly-headed.
  • erosus: erose, jagged, as if gnawed.
  • erraticus: erratic, unusual, sporadic.
  • erubescens: blushing.
  • erythrocarpus: red-fruited.
  • erythrocephalus: red-headed.
  • erythropodus: red-footed, red-stalked.
  • erythropterus: red-winged.
  • esculentus: esculent, edible.
  • estriatus: without stripes.
  • etuberosus: without tubers.
  • europaeus: Europeans.
  • exaltatus: exalted, very tall.
  • excavatus: excavated, hollowed out.
  • excellens: excellent, excelling.
  • excelsus: tall.
  • excisus: excised, cut away.
  • exiguus: little, small, poor.
  • eximius: distinguished, out of the ordinary.
  • exitiosus: pernicious, destructive.
  • exoletus: mature, fully grown, dying away.
  • exoticus: exotic, from another country.
  • expansus: expanded.
  • exsculptus: dug out, carved out.
  • exsertus: exserted, protruding from.
  • exsurgens: rising up, standing up.
  • extensus: extended.
  • exudans: exuding.

F

  • fabaceus: faba-like, bean-like.
  • falcatus: falcate, sickle-shaped or scythe-shaped.
  • falcifolius: falcate-leaved.
  • falciformis: sickle-formed.
  • fallax: deceptive.
  • farinaceus: containing farina or starch, or like flour; perhaps also farinose,
  • farinifera: farina-bearing.
  • farinosus: farinose, mealy, powdery.
  • fasciatus: fasciate, abnormally flattened and broadened.
  • fascicularis: fascicled, clustered, brought together.
  • fasciculatus: fascicled.
  • fascinator: fascinating, charming.
  • fastigiatus: fastigiate, branches erect and close together.
  • fastuosus: proud.
  • febrifugus: febrifuge, fever-dispelling.
  • fenestralis: with window-like openings.
  • ferox: ferocious; very thorny.
  • ferreus: pertaining to iron.
  • ferrugineus: rusty, of the colour of iron rust.
  • fertilis: fertile, fruitful.
  • festivus: festive, gay, bright.
  • fibrosus: fibrous, bearing prominent fibres.
  • ficoldeus: fig-like.
  • filamentosus: filamentous, composed of threads or bearing threads.
  • filicatus: fern-like, ferny.
  • filicifolius: fern-leaved.
  • filicinus: fern-like.
  • fllicoides: fern-like.
  • filifera: bearing filaments or threads.
  • filifolius: thread-leaved, with leaves cut into thread-like divisions.
  • filiformis: filiform, thread-like.
  • filipes: with stalks thread-like.
  • fimbriatus: fimbriated, fringed.
  • firmatus: firm, made firm.
  • firmus: firm, strong.
  • fissifolius: split-leaved.
  • fissilis: fissile, cleft or split.
  • fissus: cleft, split.
  • fistulosus: fistular, hollow-cylindrical.
  • flabellatus: flabellate, with fan-like parts.
  • flabelliformis: fan-formed.
  • flaccidus: flaccid, soft.
  • flagellaris: flagellate, whip-like.
  • flagellatus: whip-like.
  • flagelliformis: whip-formed.
  • flagellum: a scourge or flail.
  • flammeus: flame-coloured.
  • flavescens: yellowish, becoming yellow or yellowish.
  • flavicomus: yellow-wooled or -haired.
  • flavidus: yellow, yellowish.
  • fiavispinus: yellow-spined.
  • flavissimus: very yellow, deep yellow.
  • flavus: yellow.
  • flexilis: flexible, pliant.
  • flexuosus: flexuose, tortuous, zig-zag.
  • floccosus: woolly.
  • flore-albo: with white flowers.
  • florentinus: Florentine.
  • flore-pleno: with full or double flowers.
  • floribundus: free-flowering, blooming profusely.
  • floridus: flowering, full of flowers.
  • fluitans: floating.
  • fluviatilis: pertaining to a river.
  • foemina: female.
  • foeniculaceus: fennel-like.
  • foetidissimus: very fetid.
  • foetidus: fetid, bad-smelling.
  • foliatus: with leaves.
  • foliolatus: with leaflets.
  • foliosus: leafy, full of leaves.
  • follicularis: bearing follicles, follicled.
  • forficatus: shear-shaped.
  • formicaeformis: ant-shaped, ant-like,
  • formosissimus: most or very beautiful.
  • formosus: beautiful, handsome.
  • foveatus: pitted.
  • fragilis: fragile, brittle.
  • fragrans: fragrant, odoroua.
  • fragrantissimus: very fragrant.
  • fraxineus: fraxinous, like Fraxinus or ash trees.
  • frigidus: cold, of cold regions.
  • frondosus: fronded, leafy.
  • fructifera: fruit-bearing, fruitful.
  • fructigenus: fruitful.
  • frutescens: shrubby, bushy.
  • fruticosus: fruticose, shrubby, bushy.
  • fucatus: painted, dyed.
  • fugax: swift.
  • fulgens: shining, glistening.
  • fulgidus: fulgid, shining.
  • fuliginosus: soot coloured.
  • fulvescens: fulvous or becoming fulvous.
  • fulvus: fulvous, tawny, orange-gray-yellow.
  • funalis: of a rope or cord.
  • funebris: funereal.
  • fungosus: fungous, pertaining to a fungus, spongy.
  • funiculatus: of a slender rope or cord; with a funicle (stalk of an ovule or seed).
  • furcans: forked.
  • furcatus: furcate, forked.
  • fuscus: fuscous, brown, dusky.
  • fusiformis: spindle-shaped.

G

  • galericulatus: helmet-like.
  • gallicus: of Gaul or France; also pertaining to a cock or rooster.
  • gandavensis: belonging to Ghent, Belgium.
  • garganicus: belonging to Gargano (Eastern Italy).
  • gelidus: ice-cold.
  • geminatus: twin.
  • geminiflorus: twin-flowered.
  • gemmatus: gemmed, jewelled; also bearing buds.
  • gemmifera: bud-bearing.
  • genevensis: belonging to Geneva.
  • geniculatus: jointed, kneed.
  • geoides: of the earth.
  • geometricus: geometrical, in a pattern.
  • germanicus: German, of Germany.
  • gibberosus: humped, hunchbacked.
  • gibbiflorus: gibbous-flowered.
  • gibbosus: swollen on one side.
  • gibbus: gibbous, swollen on one side.
  • giganteus: gigantic, very large.
  • giganticus: gigantic.
  • gigas: of giants, immense.
  • glabellus: smoothish.
  • glaber: glabrous, smooth.
  • glaberrimus: most smooth, smoothest.
  • glabratus: somewhat glabrous or smooth.
  • glabrescens: smoothish, or becoming so.
  • glacialis: icy, frozen.
  • gladiatus: sword-like.
  • glandulifera: gland-bearing.
  • glandulosus: glandular.
  • glastifolius: with leaves like the dyer's woad (Isatis, once called Glastum).
  • glaucescens: glaucescent, becoming glaucous.
  • glaucifolius: glaucous-leaved
  • glaucophyllus: glaucous-leaved.
  • glaucus: glaucous, with a bloom, grayish.
  • globosus: globose, spherical, nearly or quite globular.
  • globularis: of a little ball or sphere.
  • globulifera: globule-bearing, globe-bearing.
  • globulosus: globuled, like a little ball.
  • glomeratus: glomerate, clustered.
  • gloriosus: glorious, superb.
  • glumaceus: glumed, with glumes or glume-like structures.
  • glutinosus: glutinous, gluey, sticky.
  • gongylodes: roundish.
  • gracilentus: slender.
  • gracilis: graceful, slender.
  • gracillimus: graceful, very slender.
  • graecus: of Greece, Greek.
  • gramineus: grassy, grass-like.
  • graminifolius: grass-leaved.
  • grandiceps: large-headed.
  • grandicuspis: with large cusps or points.
  • grandidentatus: large-or big-toothed.
  • grandiflorus: large-flowered.
  • grandifolius: large-leaved.
  • grandiformis: on a large scale, of a big kind.
  • grandipunctatus: with large spots.
  • grandis: large, big.
  • granulatus: granulate, covered with minute grains.
  • granulosus: granulate, granulose.
  • gratissimus: very pleasing or agreeable.
  • gratus: pleasing, agreeable.
  • graveolens: heavy-scented.
  • groenlandicus: of Greenland.
  • guianensis: of Guiana (South America).
  • guineensis: of Guinea (Africa).
  • gummifera: gum-bearing.
  • guttatus: spotted, speckled.
  • gymnocarpus: naked-fruited.
  • gyrans: gyrating, revolving in a circle.

H

  • haemanthus: blood-red-flowered.
  • hamatus: hooked.
  • hamosus: hooked.
  • harpophyllus: sickle-leaved.
  • hastatus: hastate, spear-shaped.
  • hastifera: spear-bearing.
  • hastilis: of a javelin or spear.
  • hebecarpus: pubescent-fruited.
  • hederaceus: of the ivy (Hedera).
  • helianthus: sunflower.
  • helveticus: Swiss, of Helvetia (Switzerland).
  • helvolus: pale yellow.
  • hemisphaericus: hemispherical.
  • heptaphyllus: seven-leaved.
  • herbaceus: herbaceous, dying to the ground and not woody.
  • herbariorum: of the herbaria.
  • heteracanthus: various-spined.
  • heteranthus: various-flowered, variable in flowers.
  • heterocarpus: various-fruited.
  • heterodon: various-toothed.
  • heteroglossus: various-tongued.
  • heteromorphus: various in form.
  • heterophyllus: various-leaved, with leaves of more than one shape.
  • hexagonopterus: six-angled-winged.
  • hexagonus: hexagonal, six-angled.
  • hexapetalus: six-petaled.
  • hians: open, gaping.
  • hibernalis: of or pertaining to winter.
  • hibernicus: Hibernian, of or pertaining to Ireland.
  • hieroglyphicus: hieroglyphic, marked as if with signs.
  • himalaicus: Himalayan.
  • hircinus: of a goat, with a goat's odor.
  • hirsutissimus: very hairy, most hairy.
  • hirsutulus: somewhat hirsute or hairy.
  • hirsutus: hirsute, hairy.
  • hirtellus: somewhat hairy.
  • hirtiflorus: hairy-flowered.
  • hirtipes: hairy-stalked or-stemmed.
  • hirtus: hairy.
  • hispanicus: Spanish, of Spain.
  • hispidissimus: most or very bristly.
  • hispidulus: somewhat hispid or bristly.
  • hispidus: hispid, bristly.
  • histrionicus: histrionic, pertaining to the stage or to actors.
  • holosericeus: woolly-silky. .
  • horizontalis: horizontal.
  • horridus: provided with spines or barbs, prickly.
  • hortensis: belonging to the hortus or garden.
  • horticolus: a little garden; of the garden.
  • hortorum: of gardens.
  • hortulanus: pertaining to a garden.
  • humifusus: sprawling on the ground.
  • humilis: low-growing, dwarf.
  • hyacinthinus: hyacinthine, sapphire- coloured.
  • hyacinthoides: like the hyacinth.
  • hyalinus: transparent, translucent.
  • hybridus: hybrid, mixed, mongrel.
  • hyemalis: of winter; also hiemalis.
  • hygrometricus: hygrometric, taking up water.
  • hymenanthus: membranaceous-flowered.
  • hymenodes: membrane-like.
  • hyperboreus: far northern.
  • hypocrateriformis: salver-shaped, flower with a slender cylindrical tube and flat spreading limb.
  • hypogaeus: underground, subterranean.
  • hypoglaucus: glaucous beneath.
  • hypoleucus: whitish, pale.
  • hypophyllus: under the leaf.
  • hystrix: porcupine-like, bristly.

I

  • ianthinus: violet, violet-blue.
  • ibericus: of Iberia (the Spanish peninsula).
  • icosandrus: twenty-stamened.
  • ignescens: fiery.
  • igneus: fiery.
  • ilicifolius: ilex-leaved, holly-leaved.
  • illustratus: pictured.
  • illustris: bright, brilliant, lustrous.
  • illyricus: of Illyria (classic landscape, roughly equal to Dalmatia).
  • ilvensis: of Ilva, the Mediterranean island of Elba.
  • imberbis: without beards or spines.
  • imbricans: imbricating.
  • imbricatus: imbricated, lapping over, shingled.
  • immaculatus: immaculate, spotless.
  • immersus: immersed, under water.
  • imperator: commanding, imperious.
  • imperialis: imperial, kingly.
  • implexus: implicated, interwoven.
  • impressus: impressed, sunken in.
  • inaequalifolius: unequal-leaved.
  • inaequalis: unequal.
  • inaequilaterus: unequal-sided.
  • incanus: hoary.
  • incarnatus: flesh-coloured.
  • incertus: uncertain, doubtful.
  • incisifolius: cut-leaved.
  • incisus: incised, cut.
  • inclinatus: inclined, bent downward.
  • incomparabilis: incomparable, excelling.
  • incomptus: rude, unadorned, not attractive.
  • inconspicuus: inconspicuous, not prominent.
  • incurvatus: incurved, bent inward.
  • incurvus: incurved.
  • indentatus: indented, dented
  • indicus: Indian, of India or the East Indies.
  • indivisus: undivided.
  • inermis: unarmed, without thorns or spines.
  • infectorius: used for dying, pertaining to dyes.
  • infestus: dangerous, unsafe.
  • inflatus: inflated, swollen up.
  • infortunatus: unfortunate.
  • infractus: broken.
  • infundibuliformis: funnel-shaped, trumpet-shaped.
  • infundibulum: a funnel.
  • inodorus: without odor, scentless.
  • inornatus: without ornament, not showy.
  • inquinans: polluting, discolouring.
  • inscriptus: inscribed, written on.
  • insignis: remarkable, distinguished, marked.
  • insititius: grafted.
  • intactus: intact, untouched.
  • integer: entire.
  • integerrimus: very entire.
  • integrifolius: entire-leaved.
  • interjectus: interjected, put between.
  • intermedius: intermediate.
  • interruptus: interrupted.
  • intertextus: interwoven, intertwined.
  • intricatus: intricate, entangled.
  • introrsus: introrse, turned inward.
  • intumescens: swollen, puffed up, tumid.
  • intybaceus: pertaining to chicory (Intybus).
  • inversus: inverse, turned over, upside down.
  • invisus: unseen, overlooked.
  • involucratus: involucred, with an involucre.
  • involutus: involute, rolled inward.
  • ionanthus: with flowers like the violet.
  • ionopterus: with wings like the violet.
  • iridescens: iridescent.
  • iridiflorus: iris-flowered.
  • irregularis: irregular.
  • isandrus: with equal stamens.
  • isopetalus: equal-petaled.
  • isophyllus: equal-leaved.
  • italicus: Italian.

J

  • jamaicensis: of Jamaica.
  • japonicus: Japanese, of Japan.
  • jasmineus: jasmine-like.
  • jasminiflorus: jasmine-flowered.
  • javanicus: Javan, of Java.
  • Jubatus: crested, with a mane.
  • jucundus: agreeable, pleasing.
  • jugosus: joined, yoked.
  • junceus: Juncus-like, rush-like.

K

  • kashmirianus: of Cashmere or Kashmere.
  • kewensis: belonging to Kew (Kew Gardens, England).
  • koraianus: of Corea; also coreanus.

L

  • labiatus: labiate, lipped.
  • labiosus: lipped.
  • lachryma: a tear.
  • laciniatus: laciniate, torn, cut or slashed into narrow lobes.
  • laciniosus: laciniose, laciniate.
  • lactatus: milky.
  • lacteus: milk-white.
  • lacticolor: milk-coloured.
  • lactifera: milk-bearing, milky-juiced.
  • lactiflorus: flowers milk-coloured.
  • lacunosus: witn holes or pits.
  • lacustris: pertaining to lakes.
  • ladanifera: ladanum-bearing.
  • laetevirens: light green, vivid green.
  • laetus: bright, vivid.
  • laevicaulis: smooth-stemmed.
  • laevigatus: smooth.
  • laevipes: smooth-footed, smooth-stalked.
  • laevis: smooth.
  • laeviusculus: smoothish, somewhat smooth.
  • lanatus: woolly.
  • lanceolatus: lanceolate.
  • lanceus: lance-like.
  • lancifolius: lance-leaved.
  • lanigera: wool-bearing.
  • lanuginosus: woolly, downy.
  • lappaceus: pertaining to a globular hooked bur; Lappa-like.
  • lapponicus: of Lapland.
  • laricifolius: larch-leaved.
  • laricinus: Larix-like, larch-like.
  • lasiocarpus: rough-fruited, rough-hairy.
  • lasiopetalus: with petals rough-hairy.
  • lateriflorus: lateral-flowered, with flowers on the side.
  • lateritius: brick-red.
  • latifolius: broad-leaved.
  • latifrons: broad-fronded, broad-herbaged, broad-leaved.
  • latimaculatus: broad-spotted.
  • latipes: broad-footed, broad-stalked.
  • latissimus: broadest, very broad.
  • latus: broad, wide.
  • laurifolius: laurel-leaved.
  • laurinus: laurel-like.
  • lavandulaceus: lavender-like.
  • laxiflorus: loose-flowered.
  • laxifolius: loose-leaved.
  • laxus: lax, open, loose.
  • leianthus: smooth-flowered.
  • leiocarpus: smooth-fruited.
  • leiophyllus: smooth-leaved.
  • lenticularis: lenticular, lens-shaped.
  • lentus: pliant, tenacious, tough.
  • leontoglossus: lion-tongued or -throated.
  • leopardinus: leopard-spotted.
  • lepidophyllus: scaly-leaved.
  • leprosus: of leprosy, scurfy.
  • leptocaulis: thin-stemmed, slender-stemmed.
  • leptocladus: thin-stemmed or -branched.
  • leptolepis: thin-scaled.
  • leptophyllus: thin-or slender-leaved.
  • leptosepalus: thin-sepaled.
  • leptopus: thin- or slender-stalked.
  • leucanthus: white-flowered.
  • leucobotrys: with white clusters.
  • leucocephalus: white-headed.
  • leuconeurus: white-nerved.
  • leucophyllus: white-leaved.
  • leucorhizus: white-rooted.
  • liburnicus: of Liburnia (west of Adriatic).
  • lignosus: woody.
  • ligularis: ligulate, strap-shaped.
  • lilacinus: lilac.
  • liliiflorus: lily-flowered.
  • limbatus: bordered.
  • limosus: of muddy or marshy places.
  • linariifolius: linaria-leaved.
  • linearifolius: linear-leaved.
  • linearilobus: linear-lobed.
  • linearis: linear.
  • lineatus: lined, with lines or stripes.
  • lingulatus: tongue-shaped.
  • linifolius: linum-leaved, flax-leaved.
  • linophyllus: flax-leaved.
  • lithospermus: with seeds stone-like.
  • littorulis: of the seashore.
  • lividus: livid, bluish.
  • lobatus: lobed.
  • lobularis: lobed.
  • loliaceus: Lolium-like (Lolium comprises the rye-grasses).
  • longebracteatus: long-bracted.
  • longepedunculatus: long-pedunculate.
  • longicaudatus: long-tailed.
  • longiflorus: long-flowered.
  • longifolius: long-leaved.
  • longihamatus: long-hooked.
  • longilaminatus: with long laminae or plates.
  • longilobus: long-lobed.
  • longimucronatus: long-mucronate.
  • 1ongipes: long-footed, long-stalked.
  • longipetalus: long-petaled.
  • longipinnatus: long-pinnate.
  • longiracemosus: long-racemed.
  • longiscapus: long-scaped.
  • longisepalus: long-sepaled.
  • longispathus: long-spathed.
  • longispinus: long-spined.
  • longissimus: longest, very long.
  • longistylus: long-stalked.
  • longus: long.
  • lorifolius: strap-leaved.
  • lucidus: lucid, bright, shining, clear.
  • ludovicianus: of Louisiana.
  • lugdunensis: belonging to the region of Lyons.
  • lunatus: lunate, moon-shaped, moon-like, crescent-shaped.
  • lunulatus: somewhat moon-shaped.
  • lupulinus: Lupulus-like, hop-like.
  • luridus: lurid, wan, sallow, pale yellow.
  • luteolus: yellowish.
  • lutescens: yellowish, becoming yellow.
  • luteas: yellow.
  • luxunans: luxuriant, thrifty.
  • lyratus: lyrate, pinnatifid with large terminal lobe.

M

  • macilentus: lean, meager.
  • macrandrus: with large anthers.
  • macranthus: large-flowered.
  • macrobotrys: large-clustered.
  • macrocarpus: large-fruited.
  • macrocephalus: large-headed.
  • macrodactylus: large-fingered.
  • macrodontus: large-toothed.
  • macropetalus: with large petals.
  • macrophyllus: large-leaved.
  • macroplectron: large-spurred.
  • macropodus: large-footed or -stalked.
  • macropterus: large-winged.
  • macrospadix: with large spadix.
  • macrostachyus: large-spiked.
  • macrostegius: large-decked.
  • macrostemus: with large filaments.
  • macrostylus: large-styled.
  • macrourus: large-tailed.
  • maculatus: spotted.
  • maculosus: spotted.
  • maesiacus: of Moesia, ancient name of Bulgaria and Servia.
  • magellanicus: Straits of Magellan region.
  • magnificus: magnificent, eminent, distinguished.
  • majalis: of May, Maytime.
  • majesticus: majestic.
  • major, majus: greater, larger.
  • malabaricus: of Malabar (in British India).
  • maliformis: apple-formed.
  • malvaceus: Malva-like, mallow-like.
  • mammosus: breasted, with breasts.
  • manicatus: manicate, long-sleeved, covered densely as with thick hairs so that the covering can be removed as such.
  • marcescens: withering but not falling.
  • marcidus: withering but not falling off.
  • margaritaceus: pearly, of pearls.
  • marginalis: marginal, marked in some way along the margins or edges.
  • marginatus: margined.
  • marginellus: somewhat margined.
  • marilandicus: of the Maryland region; also written marylandicus.
  • maritimus: maritime, of the sea.
  • marmoratus: marbled, mottled.
  • marmoreus: marbled.
  • marmorophyllus: leaves marbled.
  • maroccanus: of Morocco.
  • mas: male.
  • masculatus: masculine.
  • masculus: male, masculine.
  • matronalis: pertaining to matrons.
  • mauritanicus: of Mauretania (N. Africa).
  • maxillaris: maxillary, of the jaw.
  • maximus: largest.
  • mediterraneus: of the Mediterranean region.
  • medius: medium, intermediate.
  • medullaris: of the marrow or center or pith.
  • megalanthus: large-flowered.
  • megaphyllus: large-leaved.
  • megapotamicus: of the large river.
  • megarrhizus: large-rooted.
  • megaspermus: large-seeded.
  • megastachyus: large-spiked.
  • megastigmus: with large stigma.
  • melananthus: black-flowered.
  • melancholicus: melancholy, hanging or drooping.
  • melanocaulon: black-stemmed.
  • melanococcus: black-berried.
  • melanoleucus: black-and-white.
  • melanoxylon: bluck-wooded.
  • meleagris: like a guinea-fowl, speckled.
  • melleus: pertaining to honey.
  • meliffera: honey-bearing.
  • meloformis: melon-shaped.
  • membranaceus: membranaceous, membranous, thin and more or less translucent.
  • meniscifolius: crescent-leaved.
  • mesoleucus: mixed with white.
  • metallicus: metallic (colour or lustre).
  • mexicanus: Mexican, of Mexico.
  • micans: glittering, sparkling, mica- like.
  • micranthus: small-flowered.
  • microcarpus: small-fruited.
  • microdon: email-toothed.
  • microglossus: small-tougued.
  • microlepis: small-scaled.
  • micromeris: small-numbered, of small number of parts.
  • micropetalus: small-petaled.
  • microphyllus: small-leaved.
  • micropterus: small-winged.
  • microsepalus: small-sepaled.
  • microstemus: of small filaments or stemlets.
  • militaris: military.
  • millefoliatus: thousand-leaved.
  • millefolius: thousand-leaved, leaves or parts very many.
  • mimus: mimic.
  • minax: threatening, forbidding.
  • miniatus: cinnabar-red.
  • minimus: least, smallest.
  • minor, minus: smaller.
  • minutissimus: very or most minute.
  • minutus: minute, very small.
  • mirabilis: marvellous, extraordinary, wonderful.
  • mistassinicus: of Lake Mistassini, (Quebec).
  • mitis: mild, gentle.
  • mitratus: turbaned.
  • mixtus: mixed.
  • modestus: modest.
  • moldavicus: of Moldavia (in Rumania).
  • mollis: soft, soft-hairy.
  • mollissimus: very soft-hairy.
  • moluccanus: of the Moluccas (East Indies).
  • monadelphus: in one group or bundle.
  • mongolicus: of Mongolia.
  • monilifera: bearing a necklace.
  • monacanthus: one-spined.
  • monocephalus: single-headed.
  • monogynus: of one pistil.
  • monoicus: monoecious.
  • monopetalus: one-petaled.
  • monophyllus: one-leaved.
  • monopterus: one-winged.
  • monopyrenus: bearing one stone or pyrene.
  • monosepalus: one-sepaled.
  • monospermus: one-seeded.
  • monostachyus: single-spiked.
  • monspeliensis: of Montpelier.
  • monspessulanus: of Montpelier.
  • monstrosus: monstrous, wholly abnormal or deformed, teratological.
  • montanus: pertaining to mountains or mountainous regions.
  • montevidensis: of Montevideo (Uruguay).
  • monticolus: native of mountains.
  • moschatus: musky, musk-scented.
  • mucronatus: mucronato, tipped with a short sharp point or mucro.
  • mucronulatus: with a small mucro or point.
  • multibracteatus: many-bracted.
  • multicaulis: many-stemmed, with numerous stems.
  • multiceps: many-headed, many branched.
  • multicolor: many-coloured.
  • multifidus: multifid, many times parted.
  • multiflorus: many-flowered.
  • multifurcatus: much-forked, many times forked.
  • multijugus: many in a yoke, many times joined.
  • multinervis: many-nerved.
  • multiplex: many-folded.
  • multiradiatus: many-radiate, with numerous rays.
  • multisectus: many times cut, much cut or dissected.
  • mundulus: trim, neat.
  • munitus: defended, fortified.
  • muralis: of walls, growing on walls.
  • muricatus: muricate, roughed by means of hard points.
  • muscipula: a mouse-trap.
  • mutabilis: changeable, variable, mutant.
  • mutatus: changeable.
  • muticus: blunt, pointless.
  • mutilatus: mutilated.
  • myriacanthus: numberless spined, very many-spined.
  • myriocarpus: very many-fruited.
  • myrmecophilus: ant-loving.
  • myrtifolius: myrtle-leaved.

N

  • nanus: dwarf.
  • mapiformis: turnip-shaped.
  • narbonensis: of Narbonne (ancient region or province of S. France).
  • natans: floating, swimming.
  • navicularis: pertaining to a ship.
  • neapolitanus: Neapolitan.
  • nebulosus: nebulous, clouded, indefinite, obscure.
  • neglectus: neglected, overlooked.
  • nemoralis: of groves or woods.
  • nemorosus: of groves or woods and shady places.
  • nepalensis: of Nepal (Himalayan region).
  • neriifolius: nerium-leaved, oleander-leaved.
  • nervosus: nerved.
  • nevadensis: of the Sierra Nevadas (in Spain or N. America).
  • nictitans: blinking, moving.
  • nidus: nest.
  • niger: black.
  • nigratus: blackish.
  • nigrescens: blackish, becoming black.
  • nigricans: black.
  • nigricornis: black-horned.
  • nigripes: black-footed or -atalked.
  • nilotica: of the Nile.
  • nitens: shining.
  • nitidus: shining.
  • nivalis: snowy, pertaining to snow.
  • niveus: snowy.
  • nivosus: snowy, full of snow.
  • nnbilior: more noble.
  • nobilis: noble, famous, renowned.
  • nobilissimus: most or very noble.
  • nodidflorus: with flowers at nodes.
  • nodosus: with nodes, jointed.
  • nonscriptus: undescribed.
  • nootkatensis: of Nootka (Nootka Sound is by Vancouver Island).
  • notatus: marked.
  • novae-angliae: of New England.
  • novae-caesareae: of New Jersey.
  • novae-zealandiae: of New Zealand.
  • noveboracensis: of New York.
  • novi-belgii: of New Belgium or New Netherlands (i. e., New York).
  • nubicolus: dwelling among clouds.
  • nucifera: nut-bearing.
  • nudatus: nude, stripped.
  • nudicaulis: naked-stemmed.
  • nudiflorus: naked-flowered.
  • nudus: nude, naked.
  • numismatus: pertaining to money, coin-like.
  • nutans: nodding.
  • nycticalus: night-blooming.

O

  • obconicus: inversely conical.
  • obcordatus: obcordate, inversely cordate.
  • obesus: obese, fat.
  • obfuscatus: clouded, confused.
  • obliquus: oblique, unequal and slanting.
  • obliteratus: obliterated, erased, not apparent.
  • oblongatus: oblong.
  • oblongifo1ius: oblong-leaved.
  • oblungus: oblong.
  • obovatus: obovate, inverted ovate.
  • obscurus: obscure, hidden.
  • obsoletus: obsolete, rudimentary.
  • obtusatus: obtuse, blunt.
  • obtusifolius: blunt-leaved.
  • obtusilobus: blunt-lobed.
  • obtusus: obtuse, blunt, rounded.
  • occidentalis: occidental, western.
  • oceanicus: oceanic; perhaps of Oceanica.
  • ocellatus: eyeleted, with small eyes.
  • ochreatus: with an ochrea or boot-sheath.
  • ochroleucus: yellowish white.
  • octandrus: with eight anthers.
  • octopetalus: eight-petaled.
  • octophyllus: eight-leaved.
  • oculatus: eyed, with eye-like marks.
  • odontites: tooth.
  • odontochilus: with toothed lip or margin.
  • odoratissimus: most or very odorous, very fragrant.
  • odoratus: odorous, fragrant.
  • odorus: odorous, fragrant.
  • officinalis: officinal, medicinal, recognized in the pharmacopea.
  • officinarum: of the apothecaries.
  • oleaefolius: Olea- or olive-leaved.
  • oleifera: oil-bearing.
  • oleraceus: oleraceous, vegetable-garden herb used in cooking.
  • oliganthus: few-flowered.
  • oligocarpus: few-fruited.
  • oligosperrnus: few-seeded.
  • olitorius: pertaining to vegetable-gardens or -gardeners.
  • olivaceus: olive-like, olive-coloured.
  • olivaeformis: olive-shaped.
  • olympicus: of Olympus or Mt. Olympus (in Greece).
  • omnivorus: omnivorous, of all kinds of food.
  • opacus: opaque, shaded.
  • operculatus: with a lid.
  • oppositiflorus: opposite-flowered.
  • oppositifolius: opposite-leaved.
  • opuliflorus: flowers of Opulus (a Viburnum).
  • orbicularis: round.
  • orbiculatus: round.
  • orchideus: orchid-like.
  • orchioides: orchid-like.
  • oreganus: of Oregon.
  • orgyalis: length of the arms extended, about 6 feet.
  • orientalis: oriental, eastern.
  • ornatissimus: most showy or ornate.
  • ornatus: ornate, adorned.
  • ornithocephalus: like a bird's head.
  • ornithopodus: like a bird's foot.
  • ornithorhynchus: shaped like a bird's beak.
  • orthocarpus: straight-fruited.
  • orthochilus: straight-lipped.
  • orthopterus: straight-winged.
  • ovalifolius: oval-leaved.
  • ovalis: oval.
  • ovatifolius: ovate-leaved.
  • ovatus: ovate.
  • ovifera: egg-bearing.
  • ovigera: egg-bearing.
  • ovinus: pertaining to sheep.
  • oxyacanthus: sharp-thorned or -spined.
  • oxygonus: sharp-angled.
  • oxyphyllus: sharp-leaved.
  • oxysepalus: with sharp sepals.

P

  • pachyanthus: thick-flowered.
  • pachyneurus: thick-nerved.
  • pachypterus: thick-winged.
  • pacificus: of the Pacific, of regions bordering the Pacific Ocean.
  • palaestinus: of Palestine.
  • paleaceus: with palea (bracts in grass flowers), or palea-like, chaffy.
  • pallens: pale.
  • pallescens: palish, becoming pale
  • palliatus: palliated, cloaked.
  • pallidiflorus: pale-flowered.
  • pallidifolius: pale-leaved.
  • pallidispinus: pale-spined.
  • pallidus: pale.
  • palliflavens: pale yellow.
  • palmatifidus: polmately cut.
  • palmatus: palmate, divided or lobed like the hand.
  • paludosus: of marshes, marsh-loving.
  • palustris: marsh-loving.
  • panduratus: fiddle-shaped.
  • paniculitus: paniculate.
  • paniculigera: panicle-bearing.
  • pannonicus: of Pannonia (Roman province on the Danube, now western Hungary).
  • pannosus: ragged, tattered.
  • papaveraceus: Papaver-like, poppy-like.
  • papilionaceus: butterfly-like, the form of the pea flower.
  • papillosus: papillate, with minute nipple-like projections or protuberances.
  • papyraceus: papery.
  • papyrifera: paper-bearing.
  • paradisiacus: of parku or gardens.
  • paradoxus: paradoxical, strange.
  • parasiticus: parasitical, of a parasite.
  • pardalinus: leopard-like, spotted.
  • pardinus: leopard-spotted.
  • partitus: parted.
  • parviflorus: small-flowered.
  • parvifolius: small-leaved.
  • parvissimus: smallest, very small.
  • parvulus: very small, very slight.
  • parvus: small.
  • patagonicus: of Patagonia.
  • patellaris: circular, disk-shaped, like a knee-pan.
  • patens: spreading.
  • patulus: spreading.
  • pauciflorus: few-flowered.
  • paucifoliue: few-leaved.
  • pauperculus: poor.
  • pavoninus: peacock-like.
  • pectinaceus: pectinate.
  • pectinatus: pectinate, comb-like, pin-natifid with very narrow close divisions or parts.
  • pectinifera: comb-bearing.
  • pectoralis: shaped like a breast-bone
  • pedatus: footed, of the foot or feet; also pedate, like a bird's foot, being palmately divided and the side parts 2-cleft.
  • pedemontanus: of Piedmont (northern Italy).
  • peduncularis: peduncled, stalked.
  • pedunculatus: peduncled.
  • pedunculosus: with many peduncles.
  • pellucidus: pellucid, with translucent dots.
  • peltatus: peltate.
  • peltifolius: peltate-leaved.
  • pelviformis: pelvis-shaped.
  • penduliflorus: pendulous-flowered.
  • pendulinus: somewhat pendulous.
  • pendulus: pendulous, hanging.
  • penicillatus: hair penciled, like a little brush; pinnate.
  • pennatus: feathered, as the veins or lobes standing off at right angles from a midrib; pinnate.
  • penninervis: feather-veined.
  • pennsylvanicus: of Pennsylvania.
  • pentagonus: five-angled.
  • pentagynus: of five pistils.
  • pentandrus: of five stamens.
  • pentanthus: five-flowered.
  • pentaphyllus: five-leaved.
  • perbellus: very beautiful.
  • peregrinus: exotic, foreign, from a strange country.
  • perennans: perennial.
  • perennis: perennial, living three or more years.
  • perfoliatus: perfoliate, with leaf surrounding the stem.
  • perforatus: perforated, with holes.
  • permixtus: much mixed or confused.
  • persicaefolius: peach-leaved.
  • persicus: of Persia; also the peach.
  • perspicuus: clear, transparent.
  • pertusus: thrust through, forced through, perforated.
  • peruvianus: Peruvian, of Peru.
  • petaloideus: petal-like.
  • petiolaris: petioled, with a leaf-stalk.
  • petiolatus: petioled.
  • petraeus: rock-loving.
  • phlogiflorus: flame-flowered.
  • phoeniceus: purple-red.
  • phrygius: of Phrygia (in Asia-Minor).
  • phyllomaniacus: running wildly to leaves, leafy.
  • picturatus: painted-leaved, pictured, variegated.
  • pictus: painted.
  • pilifera: bearing soft hairs.
  • pilosiusculus: somewhat or slightly pilose.
  • pilosus: pilose, shaggy, with soft hairs.
  • pilulifera: globule-bearing.
  • pinetorum: of pine forests.
  • pineus: of the pine.
  • pinifolius: pine-leaved.
  • pinnatifidus: pinnatifid, pinnately cleft.
  • pinnatifrons: pinnate-fronded or -foliaged.
  • pinnatinervis: pinnate-nerved.
  • pinnatus: pinnate, with leaflets on the sides of a main leaf axis.
  • pisifera: Pisum-bearing, pea-bearing.
  • pisocarpus: pea-fruited.
  • placatus: quiet, calm.
  • planiflorus: plane-flowered, flat-flowered.
  • planifolius: flat-leaved.
  • plantagineus: plantain-like.
  • planus: plane, flat.
  • platanoides: Platanus-like, plane-tree-like.
  • platycanthus: broad-spined.
  • platycarpus: broad-fruited.
  • platycladus: broad-branched.
  • platyglossus: broad-tongued.
  • platyphyllus: broad-leaved.
  • plenissimus: very full or double.
  • plenus: full, used to designate doubleness in flowers (as in flore-pleno).
  • pleurostachys: side-spiked.
  • plicatus: plicate, plaited, folded lengthwise.
  • plumarius: plumed.
  • plumatus: plumed.
  • plumbeus: of lead.
  • plumosus: feathery.
  • poculiformis: deep cup-shaped.
  • podocarpus: with stalked fruit.
  • poeticus: pertaining to poets
  • polifolius: Polium-leaved, white-leaved.
  • politus: polished.
  • polyacanthus: many-spined.
  • polyandrus: of many stamens.
  • polyanthus: many-flowered.
  • polycephalus: many-headed.
  • polydactylus: many-fingered.
  • polygamus: polygamous, having both perfect and imperfect flowers.
  • polymorphus: of many forms, variable.
  • polypetalus: many-petaled.
  • polyphyllus: many-leaved.
  • polyspermus: many-seeded.
  • polystachyus: many-spiked.
  • polystictus: many-dotted.
  • pomaceus: pome-like, resembling the apple or pear.
  • pomeridianus: afternoon.
  • ponderosus: ponderous, heavy, weighty.
  • ponticus: of Pontus (in Asia Minor).
  • populifolius: populus-leaved, poplar-leaved.
  • populneus: pertaining to poplars.
  • porcinus: pertaining to swine.
  • porrifolius: Porrum- or leek-leaved.
  • praealtus: very tall.
  • praecox: precocious, premature, very early.
  • praestans: distinguished, excelling.
  • praetextus: bordered.
  • prasinatus: greenish.
  • prasinus: grass-green.
  • pratensis: of meadows.
  • precatorius: praying, prayerful.
  • primulinus: primrose-like.
  • princeps: princely, first.
  • prismaticus: prismatic, prism-shaped.
  • proboscideus: proboscis-like.
  • procerus: tall.
  • prucumbens: procumbent, lying on the ground.
  • procurrens: extended.
  • productus: produced, lengthened.
  • profusus: profuse.
  • prolifera: producing offshoots, bearing abnormal supernumerary parts.
  • prolificus: prolific, fruitful.
  • propendens: hanging down.
  • propinquus: related, near to.
  • prostratus: prostrate, lying flat.
  • protrusus: protruding.
  • provincialis: provincial; or of Provence, southern France.
  • pruinatus: pruinose.
  • pruinosus: pruinose, with a hoary or frost-like bloom.
  • prunifolius: plum-leaved.
  • pruriens: itching.
  • pseud- pseudo-: in combinations means false, not genuine, not the true or the typical, as Pseudotsuga, false tsuga.
  • psittacinus: of the parrot.
  • pubens: downy.
  • puberulus: puberulous, somewhat pubescent.
  • pubescens: pubescent, downy.
  • pudicus: bashful, retiring, shrinking.
  • pulchellus: pretty, beautiful.
  • pulcher: handsome, beautiful.
  • pulcherrimus: very handsome.
  • pullus: dark, dusky, almost black.
  • pulverulentus: powdered, dust-covered.
  • pulvinatus: cushioned, cushion-like.
  • pumilus: dwarf.
  • punctatissimus: most spotted, very spotted.
  • punctatus: punctate, dotted.
  • pungens: piercing, sharp-pointed.
  • puniceus: reddish purple.
  • purpuraceus: purple.
  • purpurascens: purplish, becoming purple.
  • purpuratus: purple.
  • purpureus: purple.
  • pusillus: very small, insignificant.
  • pycnacanthus: densely spined.
  • pycnanthus: densely flowered.
  • pygmaeus: pigmy.
  • pyramidalis: pyramidal.
  • pyrenaicus: of the Pyrenees.
  • pyrifolius: pear-leaved.
  • pyriformis: Pyrus-formed, pear-shaped.

Q

  • quadrangularis: quadrangular, four-angled.
  • quadrangulatus: four-angled.
  • quadratus: in four or fours, squared.
  • quartricolor: of four colours.
  • quartridentatus: four-toothed.
  • quadrifidus: four-cut.
  • quadrifolius: four-leaved.
  • quadripartitus: four-parted.
  • quadrivalvis: four-valved.
  • quercifolius: Quercus-leaved, oak-leaved.
  • quercinus: of Quercus the oak.
  • quinatus: quinate, in fives.
  • quinquecolor: five-coloured.
  • quinqueflorus: five-flowered.
  • quinquefolius: five-leaved.
  • quinquelocularis: five-loculed, of five cells or compartments.
  • quinquenervis: five-nerved.
  • quinquepunctatus: five-spotted.

R

  • racemiflorus: raceme-flowered.
  • racemosus: racemose, flowers in racemes.
  • radiatus: radiate, rayed.
  • radicans: rooting.
  • radicosus: many-rooted.
  • radicum: of roots.
  • radiosus: radiate, with many rays.
  • ramentaceus: bearing a hair-like covering.
  • ramiflorus: with branching inflorescence.
  • ramosissimus: most- or much- branched.
  • ramosus: branched.
  • ranifera: bearing frogs.
  • rapaceus: pertaining to rape or turnips.
  • rariflorus: scattered-flowered, with flowers loose or few.
  • rarus: rare, uncommon.
  • raucus: hoarse, raw.
  • reclinatus: reclined, bent back.
  • rectus: straight, upright.
  • recurvatus: recurved.
  • recurvifolius: recurved-leaved.
  • recurvus: recurved, curved back.
  • redivivus: restored, brought to life.
  • reduplicatus: duplicated again, doubled again, redoubled.
  • reflexus: reflexed, bent back.
  • refractus: broken, broken in pieces.
  • refulgens: brightly shining, reflecting light.
  • regalis: regal, royal.
  • regina: queen.
  • regius: regal, royal, kingly, pertaining to a king.
  • religiosus: used for religious purposes, venerated.
  • remotus: remote, with parts distant.
  • reniformis: reniform, kidney-shaped.
  • repandus: repand, with margin wavy.
  • repens: repent, creeping.
  • reptans: creeping.
  • resectus: cut off, curtailed, pruned.
  • resinosus: resin-bearing, full of resin.
  • reticulatus: reticulate, netted, net- veined.
  • retortus: twisted back.
  • retroflexus: reflexed.
  • retusus: retuse, notched slightly at a rounded apex.
  • reversus: reversed, end-for-end.
  • revolutus: revolute, rolled backward from the margins.
  • rex: king.
  • rhamnifolius: Rhamnus-leaved, buckthorn-leaved.
  • rhizophyllus: root-leaved, acaulescent.
  • rhodanthus: rose-flowered.
  • rhodochilus: rose-lipped or -margined.
  • rhodocinctus: rose-girdled.
  • rhodoneurus: red-nerved.
  • rhomboideus: rhomboidal.
  • ricinifolius: Ricinus-leaved, with leaves of castor-oil plant.
  • rigidulus: somewhat stiff or rigid.
  • rigidus: rigid, stiff.
  • ringens: ringent, gaping, open-mouthed.
  • riparius: of river banks.
  • rivalis: pertaining to brooks.
  • rivularis: brook-loving.
  • robustus: robust, stout.
  • rosaceus: rose-like.
  • rosaeflorus: rose-flowered.
  • roseus: rose, rosy.
  • rostratus: rostrate, beaked.
  • rosularis: rosulate, in rosettes.
  • rotatus: rotate, wheel-shaped.
  • rotundifolius: round-leaved.
  • rotundus: rotund, round.
  • rubellus: reddish.
  • rubens: red, ruddy.
  • ruber: red, ruddy.
  • ruberrimus: very red.
  • rubescens: reddish, becoming red.
  • rubiaefolius: rubus- or bramble-leaved.
  • rubicundus: rubicund, red.
  • rubiginosus: rusty.
  • rubricaulis: red-stemmed.
  • rubrifolius: red-leaved.
  • rubronervis: red-veined.
  • rufescens: reddish, becoming red.
  • rufinervis: red-nerved.
  • rufus: red, reddish.
  • rugosus: rugose, wrinkled.
  • runcinatus: runcinate, retrorsely or backwardly incised or toothed.
  • rupestris: rock-loving.
  • rupicolus: growing on cliffs or ledges.
  • rusticus: rustic, belonging to the country.
  • ruthenicus: Ruthenian, Russian.
  • rutilans: red, becoming red.

S

  • saccatus: saccate, bag-like.
  • saccharatus: containing sugar, sweet.
  • saccharifera: sugar-bearing.
  • saccharinus: saccharine.
  • saccharum: sugar.
  • saccifera: bag-bearing.
  • sachalinensis: of Saghalien Isl. (N. Japan).
  • sagittalis: of the arrow, sagittate.
  • sagittatus: sagittate, arrow-like.
  • sagittifolius: arrow-leaved.
  • salicifolius: salix-leaved, willow-leaved.
  • salicinus: willow-like.
  • salignus: of the willow.
  • sailnus: salty.
  • sambucinus: sambucus- or elder-like.
  • sanctus: holy.
  • sandwicensis: of the Sandwich or Hawaiian Isls.
  • sanguineus: bloody, blood-red.
  • sapidus: savory, pleasing to taste.
  • sapientum: of the wise men or authors.
  • saponaceus: soapy.
  • sarcodes: flesh-like.
  • sarmaticus: of Sarmatia (an ancient territory in S. Russia and Poland).
  • sarmentosus: sarmentose, bearing runners.
  • sativus: cultivated.
  • saurocephalus: lizard-headed.
  • saxatilis: found among rocks.
  • saxicolus: growing among rocks.
  • saxosus: full of rocks.
  • scaber: scabrous, rough.
  • scabrellus: somewhat scabrous.
  • scandens: scandent, climbing.
  • scaposus: with scapes.
  • sceptrum: of a scepter.
  • schizoneurus: cut-nerved.
  • schizopetalus: cut-petaled.
  • schizohyllus: cut-leaved.
  • scholaris: pertaining to a school.
  • sclerocarpus: hard-fruited.
  • sclerophyllus: hard-leaved.
  • scotica: Scottish, of Scotland.
  • sculptus: carved.
  • scutellaris: salver- or dish-shaped.
  • scutum: a shield.
  • sebifera: tallow-bearing.
  • sebosus: full of tallow or grease.
  • sechellarus: of the Seychelles (Indian Ocean).
  • secundus: secund, side-flowering.
  • securigera: axe-bearing.
  • segetum: of cornfields.
  • semialatus: semi-winged, half or somewhat winged.
  • semicaudatus: semi- or partially tailed.
  • semicylindricus: semi- or somewhat cylindrical.
  • semipinnatus: half or imperfectly pinnate.
  • semperflorens: ever flowering.
  • sempervirens: ever green.
  • senilis: senile, old, white-haired.
  • sensibilis: endowed with feeling, sensitive.
  • sensitivus: sensitive.
  • sepiarius: pertaining to hedges.
  • sepium: of hedges or fences.
  • septangularis: seven-angled.
  • septumlobus: seven-lobed.
  • septempunctatus: seven-spotted.
  • septentrionalis: northern, belonging to the North.
  • sepultus: sepulchered, interred.
  • sericeus: silky.
  • serotinus: late, late-flowering or late-ripening.
  • serpens: creeping, crawling.
  • serpentinus: of snakes, serpentine, looping or waving.
  • serratifolius: serrate-leaved, saw-edge-leaved.
  • serratus: serrate, saw-toothed.
  • serrulatus: serrulate, somewhat serrate.
  • sesquipedalis: one foot and a half long or high.
  • sessiflorus: sessile-flowered, without pedicel.
  • sessifolius: sessile-leaved, without petiole.
  • sessilifolius: sessile-leaved.
  • sessilis: sessile, stalkless, sitting.
  • setaceus: setaceous, bristle-like.
  • setigera: bristly, bristle-bearing.
  • setosus: setose, full of bristles.
  • setulosus: full of small bristles.
  • sibiricus: of Siberia.
  • signatus: marked, designated, attested.
  • sikkimensis: of Sikhim or Sikkim (N. India).
  • siliceus: pertaining to or growing in sand.
  • siliculosus: bearing silicles.
  • silvaticus: pertaining to woods, sylvan; sometimes sylvalictus.
  • silvestris: pertaining to woods.
  • simplex: simple, unbranched.
  • simplicicaulis: simple-stemmed.
  • simplicifolius: simple-leaved.
  • simplicissimus: simplest, very unbranched.
  • simulans: similar to, resembling.
  • sinensis: Chinese, of China.
  • sinicus: Chinese.
  • sinuatus: sinuate, wavy-margined.
  • sinuosus: sinuate.
  • sitchensis: belonging to Sitka, Alaskan.
  • smaragdinus: of emerald.
  • smilacinus: of smilax.
  • sobolifera: bearing creeping rooting stems or shoots.
  • socialis: sociable, companionable.
  • socotranus: of the Island of Socotra (south of Arabia).
  • solaris: solar, of the sun.
  • solidus: solid, dense, not hollow.
  • somnifera: sleep-producing.
  • sordidus: dirty, unclean, foul.
  • spadiceus: with a spadix.
  • sparsiflorus: sparsely or few-flowered.
  • sparsifolius: sparsely or few-leaved.
  • sparsus: sparse, scattered, few.
  • sparteus: pertaining to the broom.
  • spathaceus: with a spathe.
  • spathulatus: spatulate, spoon-shaped, narrowed toward the base from a rounded top.
  • speciosissimus: very showy.
  • speciosus: showy, good-looking.
  • spectabilis: spectacular, worth seeing, remarkable, showy.
  • spectandus: showy.
  • spectrum: an image, apparition.
  • sphacelatus: dead, withered, diseased.
  • sphaericus: spherical.
  • sphaerocarpus: spherical-fruited.
  • sphaerocephalus: spherical-headed.
  • sphaeroideus: sphere-like.
  • sphaerostachyus: spherical-spiked.
  • spicatus: spicate, with spikes.
  • spicigera: spike-bearing.
  • spinosissimus: most or very spiny.
  • spinosus: full of spines.
  • spinulifera: bearing small spines.
  • spinulosus: somewhat or weakly spiny.
  • spiralis: spiral.
  • spirellus: a spiral, little spiral.
  • splendens: splendid.
  • splendidissimus: very splendid.
  • splendidus: splendid.
  • spumarius: frothing, of froth or spume.
  • spurius: spurious, false, bastard.
  • squalens: daubed, filthy.
  • squalidus: squalid, filthy.
  • squamatus: squamate, with squamae or small scale-like leaves or bracts.
  • squamosus: squamate, full of scales.
  • squarrosus: squarrose, with parts spreading or even recurved at ends.
  • stamineus: bearing prominent stamens.
  • stans: standing, erect, upright.
  • stauracanthus: with spines cross-shaped.
  • stellaris: starry.
  • stellatus: stellate, starry.
  • stellulatus: of little stars.
  • stenocephalus: narrow-headed.
  • stenogynus: with a narrow stigma.
  • stenopetalus: narrow-petaled.
  • stenophyllus: narrow-leaved.
  • stenopterus: narrow-winged.
  • sterilis: sterile, infertile.
  • stigmaticus: marked, of stigmas.
  • stigmosus: much marked, pertaining to stigmas.
  • stipulaceus: stipuled, with stipules.
  • stipularis: stipuled.
  • stipulatus: stipuled.
  • stolonifera: bearing stolons or runners that take root.
  • stramineus: straw-coloured.
  • strangulatus: strangled, constricted.
  • streptocarpus: twisted-fruited.
  • streptopetalus: with petals twisted.
  • streptophyllus: twisted-leaved.
  • streptosepalus: with sepals twisted.
  • striatulus: somewhat or faintly striped.
  • striatus: striated, striped.
  • strictiflorus: strict- or stiff-flowered.
  • strictus: strict, upright, erect.
  • strigillosus: somewhat strigose.
  • strigosus: strigose, covered with sharp straight appressed hairs.
  • strigulosus: beset with small or weak appressed hairs.
  • striolatus: striolate, somewhat or faintly striped.
  • strobilifera: cone-bearing.
  • strumarius: of tumors or ulcers.
  • strumatus: with tumors or ulcers.
  • stylosus: with style or styles prominent.
  • styracifluus: flowing with storax or gum.
  • suaveolens: sweet-scented.
  • suavis: sweet, agreeable.
  • suavissimus: sweetest, very sweet-scented.
  • subacaulis: somewhat stemmed, nearly stemless.
  • subalpinus: subalpine, nearly alpine.
  • subauriculatus: somewhat or rather auricled or eared.
  • subcarnosus: nearly or rather fleshy.
  • subcordatus: partially or imperfectly or somewhat cordate.
  • subedentatus: nearly toothless.
  • suberculatus: of cork, corky.
  • suberectus: somewhat or rather erect.
  • suberosus: cork-barked, full of cork.
  • subfalcatus: somewhat falcate.
  • subglaucus: somewhat or to some degree glaucous.
  • subhirtellus: somewhat hairy.
  • sublunatus: somewhat lunate or crescent-shaped.
  • submersus: submerged, under water.
  • subperennis: imperfectly or nearly perennial.
  • subpetiolatus: somewhat or partially petioled.
  • subsessilis: nearly sessile, not completely sessile.
  • suhsinuatus: somewhat sinuate or wav>r-margined.
  • subterraneus: subterranean, underground.
  • subulatus: subulate, awl-shaped.
  • subumbellatus: somewhat or incompletely umbellate.
  • subvillosus: somewhat villose or soft-hairy.
  • subvolubilis: somewhat twining.
  • succulentus: succulent, fleshy.
  • suecicus: Swedish, of Sweden.
  • suffrutescens: slightly shrubby, becoming somewhat shrubby.
  • suffruticosus: slightly shrubby.
  • sulcatus: silicate, furrowed.
  • sulphureus: sulfur-coloured.
  • sumatranus: of the island of Sumatra.
  • superbiens: superb, proud.
  • superbus: superb, proud.
  • superciliaris: eyebrow-like.
  • superfluus: superfluous, redundant.
  • surculosus: producing suckers.
  • surinamensis: belonging to Surinam (Dutch Guiana).
  • susianus: of the province of Susiana (Persia).
  • suspensus: suspended, hung.
  • sylvaticus: sylvan, forest-loving (also written silvaticus).
  • sylvestris: of woods or forests.
  • sylvicolus: growing in woods
  • syphiliticus: syphilitic.
  • syriacus: Syrian, of Syria.
  • systylus: with styles joined.

T

  • tabularis: pertaining to tablets.
  • tabuliformis: tablet-formed.
  • taedigera: torch-bearing, resin-bearing.
  • taraxicifolius: Taraxicum- or dandelion-leaved.
  • tardiflorus: late-flowered.
  • tardivus: tardy, late.
  • tataricus: of Tartary (old name for Central Asia).
  • taureus: of oxen.
  • tauricus: Taurian, Crimean.
  • taurinus: bull-like.
  • taxifolius: Taxus-leaved, yew-leaved.
  • tectorum: of roofs or houses.
  • tectus: concealed.
  • temulentus: drunken.
  • tenacissimus: most tenacious.
  • tenax: tenacious, strong.
  • tenebrosus: of dark or shaded places.
  • tenellus: slender, tender, soft.
  • tener: slender, tender, soft.
  • tentaculatus: with tentacles or short projecting parts.
  • tenuicaulis: slender-stemmed.
  • tenuiflorus: slender-flowered.
  • tenuifolius: slender-leaved.
  • tenuilobus: slender-lobed.
  • tenuior: more slender.
  • tenuis: slender, thin.
  • tenuissimus: very slender, very thin.
  • terebinthinus: of turpentine.
  • teres: terete, circular in cross-section.
  • teretifolius: terete-leaved.
  • terminalis: terminal, at the end of a stem or branch.
  • ternatus: in threes, ternate.
  • ternifolius: with leaves in threes.
  • terrestris: of the earth, terrestrial.
  • tessellatus: tessellate, laid off in squares or in dice-like pattern.
  • testaceus: light brown, brick-coloured; also testaceous, bearing a prominent testa or outer seed-coat.
  • testiculatus: testiculated, testicled.
  • testudinarius: like a tortoise-shell.
  • tetracanthus: four-spined.
  • tetragonus: four-angled.
  • tetrandrus: four-anthered.
  • tetranthus: four-flowered.
  • tetraphyllus: four-leaved.
  • tetrapterus: four-winged.
  • tetraquetrus: four-cornered.
  • texanus, texen sis: of Texas, belonging to Texas.
  • theifera: tea-bearing.
  • thermalis: warm, of warm springs.
  • thuyoides: like Thuja or arbor-vitae.
  • thyrsiflorus: Thyrse-flowered.
  • thyrsoideus: thyrse-like.
  • tibicinis: of a flute player.
  • tigrinus: tiger-striped.
  • tinctorius: belonging to dyers, of dyes.
  • tinctus: dyed.
  • tipuliformis: of the shape of a daddy-long-legs.
  • tomentosus: tomentose, matted-pubescent.
  • torminalis: useful against colic.
  • torosus: torose, cylindrical with contractions at certain places or at intervals.
  • tortilis: twisted.
  • tortuosus: much twisted.
  • tortus: twisted.
  • torulosus: somewhat torose.
  • toxicarius: poisonous.
  • toxicus: poisonous.
  • toxifera: poison-producing.
  • transparens: transparent.
  • trapeziformis: trapezium-formed, a four-sided figure of which no two sides are alike.
  • trapezioides: trapezium-like.
  • tremuloides: like Tremulus, the trembling poplar.
  • tremulus: quivering, trembling.
  • triacanthus: three-spined.
  • triandrus: with three anthers or stamens
  • triangularis: three-angled.
  • triangulatus: three-angled.
  • triangulus: three-angular.
  • tricaudatus: three-tailed.
  • trichophyllus: hairy-leaved.
  • trichosanthus: hairy-flowered.
  • trichospe mus: hairy-seeded.
  • trichotomus: thrice branched or forked.
  • tricolor: three-coloured.
  • tricornis: three-horned.
  • tricuspidatus: three-cusped, three-pointed.
  • tridactylus: three-fingered.
  • tridens: with three teeth.
  • tridentatus: three-toothed.
  • trifasciatus: three-banded.
  • trifidus: three-parted.
  • triflorus: three-flowered.
  • trifoliatus: three-leaved.
  • trifoliolatus: three-leafleted.
  • trifolius: three-leaved.
  • trifurcatus: trifurcate, thrice-forked.
  • trilineatus: three-lined.
  • trilobatus: three-lobed.
  • trilobus: three-lobed.
  • trimestris: of three months.
  • trinervis: three-nerved.
  • trinotatus: three-marked or -spotted.
  • tripartitus: three-parted.
  • tripetalus: three-petaled.
  • triphyllus: three-leaved.
  • tripteris: three-winged.
  • tripunctatus: three-spotted.
  • triquetrus: three-cornered.
  • tristis: sad, bitter, dull.
  • triternatus: triternate, thrice in threes.
  • triumphans: triumphant.
  • trivialis: common, ordinary, very frequent, found everywhere.
  • tropicus: of the tropics.
  • truncatulus: somewhat or partially truncate.
  • truncatus: truncate, cut off square.
  • tuberculatus: tuberculate, with tubercles or small tubers.
  • tuberculosus: tubercled, knotted.
  • tuberosus: tuberous.
  • tubiflorus: tube-flowered, trumpet-flowered.
  • tubispathus: tube-spathed.
  • tubulosus: tubulose, with tubes.
  • tulipifera: tulip-bearing.
  • tumidus: swollen.
  • turbinatus: turbinate, top-shaped.
  • turgidus: turgid, inflated, full.
  • typhinus: smoky or dull; perhaps pertaining to fever.
  • typicus: typical, conforming to the standard or norm.

U

  • ulicinus: like the gorse or furze (Ulex).
  • uliginosus: of wet or marshy places.
  • ulmifolius: Ulmus-leaved, elm-leaved.
  • umbeliatus: with umbels.
  • umbellulatus: with umbellets.
  • umbonatus: bossed, bearing at center an umbo or stout projection.
  • umbraculifera: umbrella-bearing, shade-producing.
  • umbrosus: shaded, shade-loving.
  • uncinatus: hooked at the point.
  • unditus: waved.
  • undecimpunctatus: eleven-spotted.
  • undulatifolius: undulate-leaved.
  • undulatus: undulated, wavy.
  • unguicularis: clawed, narrowed to a petiole-like base.
  • unguiculatus: unguiculate, clawed.
  • unguipetalus: petals clawed.
  • unicolor: one-coloured.
  • unicornis: one-horned.
  • unidentatus: one-toothed.
  • uniflorus: one-flowered.
  • unilateralis: one-sided.
  • univittatus: one-striped.
  • urceolatus: urn-shaped.
  • urens: burning, stinging.
  • urentissimus: very burning, very stinging.
  • urophyllus: tail-leaved.
  • urustachyus: tail-spiked.
  • ursinus: pertaining to bears.
  • urticifolius: nettle-leaved (Urtica).
  • usitatissimus: most useful.
  • ustulatus: burnt, sere.
  • utilis: useful.
  • utilissimus: most useful.
  • utriculatus: utriculate, with a utricle or small bladdery one-seeded fruit.
  • utriculosus: utricled.
  • uvifera: grape-bearing.

V

  • vagans: wandering, vagabondish.
  • vaginalis: vaginate, sheathed.
  • vaginatus: sheathed.
  • valdivianus, valdiviensis: Valdivian, of province of Valdivia (Chile).
  • valentinus: Valentian, of Valentia (in Spain).
  • validus: strong.
  • variabilis: variable, of many forms.
  • varians: variable.
  • variatus: variable.
  • variegatus: variegated.
  • vaiiiformis: of variable or many forms.
  • varius: various, diverse.
  • vastator (feminine vastatrix): ravaging, devastating.
  • vegetatus: full of growth, vigorous.
  • vegetus: vigorous.
  • velaris: pertaining to curtains or veils.
  • velutinus: velvety.
  • venenatus: poisonous.
  • venosus: veiny.
  • ventricosus: ventricose, swelling or inflated on one side or unevenly.
  • venustus: handsome, charming.
  • verecundus: modest, blushing.
  • vermiculatus: worm-like, or like worm-tracks.
  • vernalis: vernal.
  • vernicifera: varnish-bearing.
  • vernus: of spring, vernal.
  • verrucosus: verrucose, warted.
  • versicolor: variously coloured.
  • verticillaris: verticillate.
  • verticillatus: verticillate, whorled, arranged in a circle about the stem.
  • verus: the true or genuine or standard.
  • vescus: weak, thin, feeble.
  • vesiculosus: with little bladders
  • vespertinus: of the evening, western.
  • vestitus: covered, clothed, as with hairs or pubescence.
  • vexans: puzzling, vexatious.
  • vexillarius: of the standard petal (as of pea-like flowers), with a standard.
  • villosus: villous, soft-hairy.
  • viminalis: of osiers, of basket willows.
  • vimineus: of osiers or wicker-work.
  • vinifera: wine-bearing.
  • vinosus: full of wine.
  • violaceus: violet.
  • violescens: somewhat violet-coloured or becoming so.
  • virens: green.
  • virescens: greenish, becoming green.
  • virgatus: twiggy.
  • virginalis: virgin.
  • virgineus: virgin.
  • virginicus, virginien sis: Virginian, of Virginia.
  • viridiflorus: green-flowered.
  • viridifolius: green-leaved.
  • viridis: green.
  • viridissimus: greenest, very green.
  • viridulus: greenish.
  • viscidulus: somewhat viscid.
  • viscidus: viscid, sticky.
  • viscosissimus: very sticky.
  • viscosus: viscid.
  • vitellinus: dull yellow approaching red.
  • vitifolius: Vitis-leaved, grape-leaved.
  • vittatus: striped.
  • vittigera: bearing stripes.
  • viviparus: viviparous, producing the young alive (rather-than oviparous).
  • volgaricus: of the Volga River region (also written wolgaricus).
  • volubilis: twining.
  • voluptas: pleasure, delight.
  • volurus: rolled-leaved.
  • vulgaris: vulgar, common.
  • vulgatus: common.
  • vulpinus: of the fox.

W

  • wolgaricus: Volga River (see volgaricus).

X

  • xanthacanthus: yellow-spined.
  • xanthinus: yellow.
  • xanthocarpus: yellow-fruited.
  • xantholeucus: yellow-white.
  • xanthophyllus: yellow-leaved.

Y

  • yedoensis: of Yedo or Yeddo (Japan).
  • yunnanensis: of Province of Yunnan, China.

Z

  • zebrinus: zebra-striped.
  • zeylanicus: Ceylonian, of Ceylon; Cingalese; same as ceylanicus.
  • zonilis: zonal, zoned.
  • zonatus: zoned, banded.